The basement of a country house – one of his major premises. In a country house it can be used for technical needs – the garage, boiler room, water meter unit, Laundry facilities. Or for leisure, placing in a swimming pool, billiard room, sauna, gym, wine cellar, workshop and other auxiliary premises (storage rooms, etc.), which you would not like to see in the first or higher floors of a cottage or a bath. See below to learn more about Replacement basement windows metal frame
The basement as technical facilities allows to host the area necessary engineering structures to house, for example, the heating system (boiler), water heaters, filters and more. This will allow you to free up space in the rooms (for example, to get rid of the boiler in the kitchen). Browse some photo of Replacement basement windows metal frame
Before the construction of basements it is necessary to conduct all the necessary calculations and make drawings of the future building. This should take into account the depth of soil freezing, as well as the negative destructive influence of groundwater. Groundwater is able to make the basement unsuitable for use. Prolonged exposure to groundwater leads to the destruction of the Foundation, and then the entire structure.
The order of construction of the basement depends on the level of groundwater. If they are too close to the surface, first formed the floor. Otherwise, work can begin with the construction of walls. First excavated pit with some margin in width (for the device of the formwork). Formed a cushion of sand and gravel. You then install the formwork, laying a waterproofing material, laid rebar and poured concrete.
The construction of country houses one of the requirements of the customer often becomes the device of the basement under a monolithic Foundation. To accomplish the objectives requires additional measures for excavation, to deepen the space for a future basement. In addition, be sure to make the waterproofing of the walls of the room, the moisture is not trapped inside.
Excavation is done in stages, by selecting a 50-cm layers of soil. In the end, the wall of the pit have a stepped structure, and the dimensions of the future of the Foundation will only match the bottom of the recess. The filling of the draining layer equip, placing on the bottom of the pit 15 to 20-cm layer of sand and small gravel. On top of this sandwich lay rolled waterproofing (membrane film or tar paper).
Internal basement waterproofing is a weak protection of groundwater. If you want to get a really good result, then you need to take a range of measures including external insulation of the Foundation and the drainage device. This work must be performed at the construction stage, and subsequently to make this work more difficult.
Monolithic basement walls poured on the technology of monolithic strip Foundation. In a nutshell: digging a trench, gets sand cushion, if necessary, set the formwork, waterproofing is placed, is the reinforcement, filled with concrete. If the first poured floor for basement, formwork for casting of walls is established only after complete drying of the concrete. Otherwise bracing of formwork under weight of fill of the mixture for the walls can be pressed into the floor of the basement and form pits.
Perimeter walls the best way to do solid, and the reinforcement of basement walls will be the key to his long life. Don’t forget that fittings must be laid before pouring the basement floor. I should add that the reinforcement must be done, regardless of the thickness of the future walls. As reinforcement best suited to the 12 mm rods, the first row which must be mounted in 5-7 cm from the soil surface. The greatest strength of the wall will give a double reinforcing mesh. The size of each cell should not exceed 40×40 cm.
The drainage under the house consists of a system of pipes (drains), manholes and pumps. Drainage pipe are based, they collect excess moisture through holes or joints and lead her to the gathering place – wells. If breathing is difficult, the natural outflow of the applied submersible pumps, which are placed on the bottom of the wells – they forcibly take the water out of the house. A mandatory principle in the drainage device is a bias towards wells.
How to adjust the humidity in the basement? For this purpose, the mankind has already invented ventilation. Usually this useful site provides before the start of construction of the house. Vents (produhi), which are available in the basement part of the Foundation of almost any buildings, just play the role of ventilation. If the house is not yet built, this method of ventilation will be a smart decision, because does not require additional costs and is fully functional.
Basement insulation on the outside is best done extruded polystyrene (PPS) or a polyurethane foam. Mineral wool completely unsuitable in this location due to its ability to absorb water. It is not necessary to insulate ordinary granular polystyrene, because it is also capable of a slight amount of moisture to pass.
In any case, when you install any heating first, it is necessary to consult with certain services, responsible. Self-install in the basement, you can except the heater, in all other cases will need the assistance of experts and professionals. The calculations that will be associated with the heating system in the basement, also it is better to trust the professionals. Read related articles on the subject of Replacement basement windows metal frame
If you decide to build it all yourself, then be sure to get support. Even the trite advice of neighbors who have already made the cellars in their houses and know all about the level of groundwater and the terrain. When possible, the construction of the basement must be done, by hiring professionals.