The basement of a country house – one of his major premises. In a country house it can be used for technical needs – the garage, boiler room, water meter unit, Laundry facilities. Or for leisure, placing in a swimming pool, billiard room, sauna, gym, wine cellar, workshop and other auxiliary premises (storage rooms, etc.), which you would not like to see in the first or higher floors of a cottage or a bath. See below to learn more about Installing replacement basement windows
It is considered that the construction of basement costing too much. But upon closer inspection, it turns out that all numbers in this case, the arguments are insufficiently thorough. Utility rooms are needed in any home. They will be made in the form of a basement or spread out in width, as this allows the site — it should be decided in each case individually. House with a basement always has more value. Browse some photo of Installing replacement basement windows
It is advisable to build a basement or cellar in a house located on high dry soils. This decision is justified structurally and economically in a strip Foundation and ground slab, as the additional expenditure associated with the construction will be 3-5 times less than if you build a separate room with a similar usable area.
The order of construction of the basement depends on the level of groundwater. If they are too close to the surface, first formed the floor. Otherwise, work can begin with the construction of walls. First excavated pit with some margin in width (for the device of the formwork). Formed a cushion of sand and gravel. You then install the formwork, laying a waterproofing material, laid rebar and poured concrete.
The Foundation should be doing the most robust and reliable that its walls could successfully resist the horizontal shifts due to the pressure of the surrounding soil. As a Foundation base is recommended to use a pillow of in-situ concrete, associated with ribbon cage. As the weight of the slab is large enough, the sole should be broad.
The excavation for the basement digs to a depth of not less than 2.1 m (if in the underground level of the planned unit boiler – 2.5 m). In addition, it is desirable that a basement was located under the whole area of the building. You can build and a partial basement – half or even one third the area of the house or under a room.
Basement waterproofing should be carried out in several stages. In the beginning it is necessary to conduct surveys of the basement. If the basement already has water then it is necessary to completely drain it, then check the condition of the subfloor (slab) for strength, check the junction floor-wall, condition of basement walls. To develop recommendations on waterproofing a basement.
Basement walls, as a rule, is combined with strip foundations, and the ceiling — with a ground floor. The thickness of the walls at their depth more than 1 m is determined from the lateral pressure of soil. Dry soils have the basement walls post concrete and reinforced concrete. To increase the strength of the walls, built of bricks and concrete blocks, in horizontal seams of a laying, 30-40 cm in height, put the reinforcement mesh and top and bottom walls along their perimeter, arrange reinforced belt. In addition to stability, the basement walls should have good heat-quality and reliable waterproofing.
Basement walls need quality reinforcement, as on top of them will push the weight of the structures of the house, and on the sides of the surrounding building ground. For the walls of a small private basement binding of the reinforcement can be made with your own hands, without attraction of experts. Reinforcement is also used in cases when the expected high mechanical loads on the concrete structure.
Water from the drainage system can be abstracted in a septic tank, a drainage ditch or specially for this purpose built cumulative well. In the simplest version it is a deep pit, filled with broken brick, gravel, crushed stone, fine construction debris. It is important that the bottom of the pit was permeable, so when it is digging, it is desirable to achieve a layer of soil, which would be a sufficient amount of sand or sandy loam.
How to adjust the humidity in the basement? For this purpose, the mankind has already invented ventilation. Usually this useful site provides before the start of construction of the house. Vents (produhi), which are available in the basement part of the Foundation of almost any buildings, just play the role of ventilation. If the house is not yet built, this method of ventilation will be a smart decision, because does not require additional costs and is fully functional.
Waterproofing membrane under the concrete Foundation can be placed over the foam and underneath. In both solutions, insulation and waterproofing basements or cellars will have the same performance. The traditional laying of the membrane on the concrete base insulation layer will protect it during construction works from mechanical damage and provide a robust enough surface for laying the slab Foundation.
To organize quality and effective heated cellar or basement in a country house is not as easy as it seems at first glance. Especially if you want to make an underground room suitable for growing plants or for a longer stay of people. One only floor heating using the system of floor heating will not help. Read related articles on the subject of Installing replacement basement windows
Only well-equipped basement will be dry, without any smell of damp, and only use it as a full additional floor. It equipped with various storage rooms and a full room – boiler room, Laundry room, bath, wine cellar, Billiards room, etc.