The basement of a country house – one of his major premises. In a country house it can be used for technical needs – the garage, boiler room, water meter unit, Laundry facilities. Or for leisure, placing in a swimming pool, billiard room, sauna, gym, wine cellar, workshop and other auxiliary premises (storage rooms, etc.), which you would not like to see in the first or higher floors of a cottage or a bath. See below to learn more about How to replace basement windows
Another purpose of the basement device here engineering communications of the building, such as ventilation unit, components of the heating system or power supply at home and even a small boiler – the boiler room . In the basement is provided by the practical ideal conditions for security of electricity and teploobrazovanija, maintenance or repair. Browse some photo of How to replace basement windows
The height of the basement: technical premises take from 1.9 to 2.2 m. If you are going to do from the basement of a dwelling, the height may be equal to the height of the floor or just below (2,5-2,7 m). At the close inception of the groundwater to the ground surface basement need to build from solid reinforced concrete (floor, walls). It is better to take concrete below grade M500 (or make concrete using cement grade M500).
The order of construction of the basement depends on the level of groundwater. If they are too close to the surface, first formed the floor. Otherwise, work can begin with the construction of walls. First excavated pit with some margin in width (for the device of the formwork). Formed a cushion of sand and gravel. You then install the formwork, laying a waterproofing material, laid rebar and poured concrete.
Often construction requires large expenditures of funds. This is due to the fact that the construction of the basement must be implemented simultaneously with the construction of the Foundation. High consumption of materials creates additional costs. The choice of type of Foundation: slab Foundation, strip Foundation, pier Foundation.
Dug a pit and headroom dimensions are approximately one meter and a half. At the bottom of the pit is arranged a bed of sand and crushed stone, which is cast monolithic slab of reinforced concrete. This range is actually the Foundation of the future house. When the concrete hardens, the concrete Foundation blocks to build the walls of the basement in the configuration according to the draft. Then on top of a basement block usually concrete slabs. They serve as the ceiling of the basement and first floors at the same time. The basement walls from the outside gidroizolirovat and covered with soil cavity between them and the walls of the pit.
Basement waterproofing should be carried out in several stages. In the beginning it is necessary to conduct surveys of the basement. If the basement already has water then it is necessary to completely drain it, then check the condition of the subfloor (slab) for strength, check the junction floor-wall, condition of basement walls. To develop recommendations on waterproofing a basement.
During the construction of monolithic basement walls are equipped by technology of strip Foundation. To dig trenches on the bottom is filled with sand, installed formwork. After carrying out waterproofing measures laid reinforcing mesh and poured concrete. If you decided to pour the floor, then shuttering for shaping walls installed only after final solidification of the concrete. Otherwise, formwork bracing under the weight of the solution can be pressed into the floor, thereby forming unnecessary holes.
Adding rebar to a concrete solution creates a durable and reliable concrete structure. Usually, it is used to build load-bearing walls with high technical performance indicators. To build a wall of pure concrete is expensive and inefficient, and the use of reinforcement significantly reduces the process. In addition, the reinforcement used in the creation of structures which must withstand high mechanical load.
Only waterproofing without drainage is usually not able to protect the basement from water. In a basement without drainage a few years may not be water, and then she suddenly appears there. This has changed the hydrogeological conditions around the basement, which over time can change. Or water found a hole in the waterproofing of walls and floors. To protect the basement from water it is most advantageous when building a house to do wall ring drainage around the basement walls and Foundation.
If in the basement will create a workshop, you should take into account that the ventilation should ensure effective removal from the premises of the exhaust gas, vapour of combustive-lubricating materials, which pose a serious risk to health. There are many cases where people just choked in the Studio from the exhaust.
Basement insulation inside – it is a necessary measure, when exterior insulation is not possible or not profitable cost. Conduct internal basement insulation is possible only on a dry Foundation walls. However, there is a risk of increasing the rate of destruction of the Foundation due to its freezing. The area of freezing inside of the base will increase a lot, which in combination with high humidity, very quickly removes Foundation failure.
Most often used are fairly simple, and at the same time very effective two-pipe heating system with natural circulation of coolant. It allows you to efficiently heat the home without using additional equipment – electric circulation pumps. The reason for the popularity of this system of heating of private houses due to the fact that there are cases of power failures – and in this case (without electricity) system to work simply can not. Read related articles on the subject of How to replace basement windows
It is worth noting that to do basements in existing buildings is not recommended because it will cause high construction costs. In addition, increase the risk of damage to the Foundation of the building, especially if the device runs basements with their hands.