The basement of a country house – one of his major premises. In a country house it can be used for technical needs – the garage, boiler room, water meter unit, Laundry facilities. Or for leisure, placing in a swimming pool, billiard room, sauna, gym, wine cellar, workshop and other auxiliary premises (storage rooms, etc.), which you would not like to see in the first or higher floors of a cottage or a bath. See below to learn more about Framing around existing basement windows
Many people install in the basement billiard, gyms or even swimming pool, only trust business should be highly qualified specialists that are able to ensure the safety and reliability of its construction. Because errors can lead to basement flooding, subsidence or deformation of the Foundation. Browse some photo of Framing around existing basement windows
Not enough for the good basement just to dig a hole. After all, this room should be reliable, resistant to moisture and is well ventilated. Before the construction of the basement, you must first dig a hole 2 meters deep and see if there is typed in water. If the water doesn’t come, you’re in luck. Otherwise, there is a need to carry out waterproofing works. And it should be done carefully, since the error is then very difficult and expensive to eliminate.
Any construction begins with design. The first thing you need to know at what depth are groundwater in different seasons, and especially the structure of the soil. It is from these indicators will largely depend on the type of Foundation and basement project as a whole. Project directly, you can create your own in the program ArchiCad or similar. There you can easily calculate how many concrete blocks in the basement by entering the dimensions of the foam block and wall thickness. Independent creation of the project will allow to realize any ideas and to calculate the nuances of individual construction.
When building the Foundation for a country house it is worth considering the many climatic and geological conditions: the proximity of groundwater to the ground surface level, the tendency of the soil to deformation, and frost heave to. If the water table near the ground surface and is above freezing, there is a considerable risk of basement flooding, subsidence and destruction of the entire building. To avoid this, you need to spend on the site drainage works and to choose the right Foundation design for your home.
Excavation is done in stages, by selecting a 50-cm layers of soil. In the end, the wall of the pit have a stepped structure, and the dimensions of the future of the Foundation will only match the bottom of the recess. The filling of the draining layer equip, placing on the bottom of the pit 15 to 20-cm layer of sand and small gravel. On top of this sandwich lay rolled waterproofing (membrane film or tar paper).
Protection of the basement from the water – one of the main tasks in its construction. It includes a range of measures to ensure the water tightness of basement walls and floor as well as the prevention of rise of water inside the structure through the capillaries. Most reliable waterproofing can be done only at the stage of construction.
Basement walls, as a rule, is combined with strip foundations, and the ceiling — with a ground floor. The thickness of the walls at their depth more than 1 m is determined from the lateral pressure of soil. Dry soils have the basement walls post concrete and reinforced concrete. To increase the strength of the walls, built of bricks and concrete blocks, in horizontal seams of a laying, 30-40 cm in height, put the reinforcement mesh and top and bottom walls along their perimeter, arrange reinforced belt. In addition to stability, the basement walls should have good heat-quality and reliable waterproofing.
There are different patterns of reinforcement of the basement. For walls made monolithic method, most often used box diagram. The Assembly of the valves is performed by the device of two power series and connecting them with horizontal, thin reinforcing elements. For a basement wall reinforcement mesh is chosen sufficiently elastic, and the binding of elements it is better to use wire without welding.
The most convenient second option: the circular drainage, which is performed at a distance of 1-2 m from the Foundation walls. In this case, the pavement and the landscaping will not be disturbed. So how to make drainage in the basement without the development scheme will not work, first of all you need to do it.
Microclimate in any basement best supports the air handling system. It consists of two ducts, one for air intake and the other for exhaust. The lower end of the supply pipe is attached 50 cm from the floor of the basement, and the top needs to protrude beyond the level of the soil at 1 meter. The lower end of the exhaust pipe is located at 150 cm from the floor of the basement, beyond the top ridge of the roof 50 cm.
Basement insulation on the outside is best done extruded polystyrene (PPS) or a polyurethane foam. Mineral wool completely unsuitable in this location due to its ability to absorb water. It is not necessary to insulate ordinary granular polystyrene, because it is also capable of a slight amount of moisture to pass.
An important factor to determine the heating of the basement, you choose, will be the purpose of the room. If you plan to equip in the basement of the dwelling, will need full heating, so the heat was even in the terrible cold. Here are the relevant options of steam heating, gas boiler, if this involves designing. Read related articles on the subject of Framing around existing basement windows
Only well-equipped basement will be dry, without any smell of damp, and only use it as a full additional floor. It equipped with various storage rooms and a full room – boiler room, Laundry room, bath, wine cellar, Billiards room, etc.