The basement of a country house – one of his major premises. In a country house it can be used for technical needs – the garage, boiler room, water meter unit, Laundry facilities. Or for leisure, placing in a swimming pool, billiard room, sauna, gym, wine cellar, workshop and other auxiliary premises (storage rooms, etc.), which you would not like to see in the first or higher floors of a cottage or a bath. See below to learn more about Basement window wells
In the basements of homes suit different premises: garages, pantries, baths (including a pool), workshop, Laundry and storage area. The basement is used as a vegetable store, the storage of the tubers and bulbs of flowers. Many people throw in the mushrooms, trying to breed exotic birds and animals. The basement seems to be a place for such studies, which are impossible to do in the premises. Browse some photo of Basement window wells
The construction of the basement is the first stage of construction of a private house, unless, of course, not to consider the Foundation and planning of the territory. In some situations, the construction of the Foundation is just the beginning of the construction of the basement – such is the approach chosen in the construction of low and light buildings. The whole process of construction of basements can be divided into three main stages: this is the digging (excavation device), concrete Foundation pouring and the construction of basement walls, which in turn are part of the Foundation.
The design of the basement includes architectural solutions, which consist of detailed planning of construction, provide for the use of any kind of materials (brick, ceramic blocks, aerated concrete, etc.). Discusses the various options of the roof (open in the form of a canopy, closed), is performed if necessary, truss system, attention is paid to sound insulation, interior and exterior decoration, calculated the estimated amount of the costs. It is also possible the design of underground garages and Parking lots.
When choosing a Foundation you need to consider several factors: type of soil, the total area of the future construction, the materials used, the ability of the excavation, the presence of a cellar under the extension. As the basis can be chosen tape or pier Foundation.
The excavation for the basement digs to a depth of not less than 2.1 m (if in the underground level of the planned unit boiler – 2.5 m). In addition, it is desirable that a basement was located under the whole area of the building. You can build and a partial basement – half or even one third the area of the house or under a room.
One of the most important issues in the construction of the house is basement waterproofing. This is especially important when the project includes a basement. In this case, external and internal basement waterproofing from ground water the task priority. There are four main types of waterproofing a block Foundation. It concrete blocks are most often used for foundations of houses and other auxiliary buildings and structures.
The most reliable will be a monolithic wall. They still at the stage of creating the armature plate make the vertical reinforcement bars: outer – length 1.5-1.7 m, inner 1.2-1.3 m. When the base plate attains 70% of its strength, continue to knit the reinforcing frame in accordance with the project. Reinforced inner and the outer walls serve as ribs for slab Foundation. Height of basement walls may be different, depending on the destination premises.
Perimeter walls the best way to do solid, and the reinforcement of basement walls will be the key to his long life. Don’t forget that fittings must be laid before pouring the basement floor. I should add that the reinforcement must be done, regardless of the thickness of the future walls. As reinforcement best suited to the 12 mm rods, the first row which must be mounted in 5-7 cm from the soil surface. The greatest strength of the wall will give a double reinforcing mesh. The size of each cell should not exceed 40×40 cm.
Only waterproofing without drainage is usually not able to protect the basement from water. In a basement without drainage a few years may not be water, and then she suddenly appears there. This has changed the hydrogeological conditions around the basement, which over time can change. Or water found a hole in the waterproofing of walls and floors. To protect the basement from water it is most advantageous when building a house to do wall ring drainage around the basement walls and Foundation.
If in the basement will create a workshop, you should take into account that the ventilation should ensure effective removal from the premises of the exhaust gas, vapour of combustive-lubricating materials, which pose a serious risk to health. There are many cases where people just choked in the Studio from the exhaust.
Basement insulation on the outside is best done extruded polystyrene (PPS) or a polyurethane foam. Mineral wool completely unsuitable in this location due to its ability to absorb water. It is not necessary to insulate ordinary granular polystyrene, because it is also capable of a slight amount of moisture to pass.
Most often used are fairly simple, and at the same time very effective two-pipe heating system with natural circulation of coolant. It allows you to efficiently heat the home without using additional equipment – electric circulation pumps. The reason for the popularity of this system of heating of private houses due to the fact that there are cases of power failures – and in this case (without electricity) system to work simply can not. Read related articles on the subject of Basement window wells
It is worth noting that to do basements in existing buildings is not recommended because it will cause high construction costs. In addition, increase the risk of damage to the Foundation of the building, especially if the device runs basements with their hands.